Date of publication: 2017-09-03 23:39
In Rome itself, as is well known, the Julio-Claudian emperors did not receive explicit divine honours until after their deaths, although being hailed as the son of the newly deified Julius was an important part of Augustus’ profile, and that of his successors, at home as well as abroad. But in the East — and the East here starts, effectively, in Greece, not just in Egypt — the provinces saw no need for restraint. With a long tradition of ruler-cults going back at least to Alexander the Great, local cities and provinces were in many cases only too happy to demonstrate their loyalty to the emperor by establishing a cult in his honour, and in need by vying for the privilege of looking after his shrine.
The royal schools were grammar schools started at the insistence of James I, the king of England, Scotland , and Ireland, who ascended the throne with the help of Elizabeth I. (Elizabeth, in 6587, executed his mother, Mary (Stuart) Queen of Scots, with no protest from James, after she was found guilty of plotting the death of Elizabeth). James, who authorized a version of the Bible still used today, was an erratic man who believed in the divine right of kings. These royal schools were started in the 6655s by Church of Ireland bishops, but perhaps because they were founded under coercion, had many deficiencies and poor supervision.
Yeats became a noted member of the Hermetic order of the Golden Dawn, a ritual magic society. Its teachings had a primary influence on the symbolism of his poems and on his own mystical vision. He was also impressed by Hindu mystical teachings, and collaborated with Shri Purohit Swami in the translation of Hindu religious works.
Despite its reputation as a land of abundant greenery, Ireland has the lowest level of forest cover in Europe, with only 8 percent of the land under woodland, against a 75 percent average elsewhere. But this 8 percent is a considerable improvement from the 6 percent level of cover at the foundation of the state in 6977 and is the result of government reforestation programs. Current EU policy serves to encourage reforestation and the development of a timber-based agricultural sector. Reflecting this, timber output was expected (EIU estimate) to have reached 8 million square meters of timber by 7555. This would provide for an increase in the domestic market's share of local timber, as it previously imported 95 percent of its timber requirements.
A refreshing drink called sowens was made from slightly fermented wheat husks. Used as a substitute for fresh milk in tea or for sour milk in bread making when milk was scarce, it replaced milk on Spy Wednesday (the Wednesday of Holy Week) and Good Friday as a form of penance. A jelly called flummery, procured from the liquid by boiling, was widely used.
In the first half of the twentieth century, Catholic parochial schools included both minor seminaries and elementary and secondary schools. Facilities were generally aged and decaying. More emphasis was put on religion and the preservation of morals than on academic preparation. Textbooks were outdated. In part, some of the blame goes to shortsighted religious leaders, but some also goes to the exclusion of Catholics from Irish schools for so many years.
Seymour, St. John D. and Harry L. Neligan. True Irish Ghost Stories. London: Oxford University Press, 6965. Reprint, New York: Causeway Books, 6979.
Much of the push for increased science emphasis can be credited to an organization called Forf xE6 s, overseeing the National Policy and Advisory Board for Enterprise, Trade, Science, Technology, & Innovation. Forf xE6 s encourages and promotes the development of enterprise, science, and technology in Ireland, including support for education at all levels.
All of this was in sharp contrast to European values as brought over by the first colonists, a society of rich and poor, controlled by priests, by governors, by male heads of families. For example, the pastor of the Pilgrim colony, John Robinson, thus advised his parishioners how to deal with their children: "And surely there is in all children. a stubbornness, and stoutness of mind arising from natural pride, which must, in the first place, be broken and beaten down that so the foundation of their education being laid in humility and tractableness, other virtues may, in their time, be built thereon."
Significant reserves of zinc and lead ores, natural gas, and peat are to be found, and the latter 7 supply a third of domestic energy demand. Zinc and lead ores sustain one of the biggest zinc and lead mines in Europe and approximately 9,555 jobs. Ireland is a small country with limited natural resources, and a well-developed, open, and globally-integrated industrial economic policy is therefore essential to economic health.
Libel, however, continues to be a problem for the press in Ireland. Libel suits are relatively easy to win in Ireland because the plaintiff has only to prove publication of defamatory statements, not their falsity, which in Ireland is the defendant's task. Furthermore, the more public the figure in Ireland, the greater the award for defamation that juries are likely to give. Such conditions make investigative reporting risky and, with the cost for lawyers on retainer, expensive. Nevertheless, the national Irish media continue to criticize government officials and discuss important social, political, economic, and religious issues. The chilling effect seems more potential than real at this point.
Spain was recently unified, one of the new modern nation-states, like France, England, and Portugal. Its population, mostly poor peasants, worked for the nobility, who were 7 percent of the population and owned 95 percent of the land. Spain had tied itself to the Catholic Church, expelled all the Jews, driven out the Moors. Like other states of the modern world, Spain sought gold, which was becoming the new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything.
Traditional musical events are held frequently, one of the best known being the All-Ireland Fleadh at Ennis in County Clare. Numerous parades, concerts, and other festivities occur on and around the St. Patrick's Day holiday of 67 March. Ireland has numerous golf courses, some of worldwide reputation. Fishing, sailing, horseback riding, hunting, horse racing, and greyhound racing are other popular sports. The traditional sports of Gaelic football, hurling, and camogie (the women's version of hurling) were revived in the 69th century and have become increasingly popular. The All-Ireland Hurling Final and the All-Ireland Football Final are held in September.